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Mark Sailer
Science Teacher
Pioneer Jr-Sr High
Physics 1    Name : ________________________________________

Gravitation and Satellite Motion Unit - Chapters 12, 13 & 14

Study Guidelines

  1. Explain Newton’s idea of why the apple falls to Earth.
  2. Explain why the moon does not fall to Earth.
  3. Explain how Earth is falling.
  4. State Newton’s Law of Gravitation.
  5. Explain the significance of an inverse-square law.
  6. Explain the connection between gravitation and the idea that the universe may stop expanding and begin to contract.
  7. Describe the gravitational field outside Earth.
  8. Explain why an astronaut in Earth orbit seems weightless even though there is a gravitational force.
  9. Explain ocean tides.
  10. Give examples of tides other than those in water.
  11. Describe black holes.
  12. Explain how the speed of a satellite in circular orbit around Earth is related to the distance an object falls in the first second due to gravity.
  13. Explain why the force of gravity does not cause a change in the speed of a satellite in circular orbit.
  14. Describe how the speed of a satellite changes in different portions of an elliptical orbit.
  15. Determine the vertical speed required to ensure a projectile can “escape” Earth.

State Standards and Benchmarks Addressed:

    P.1.10 Demonstrate an understanding of the inverse square nature of gravitational and electrostatic forces.
    P.2.1 Explain that Isaac Newton created a unified view of force and motion in which motion everywhere in the universe can be explained by the same few rules. Note that his mathematical analysis of gravitational force and motion showed that planetary orbits had to be the very ellipses that Johannes Kepler had proposed two generations earlier.
    P.2.2 Describe how Newton's system was based on the concepts of mass, force, and acceleration, his three laws of motion relating to them, and a physical law stating that the force of gravity between any two objects in the universe depends only upon their masses and the distance between them.
    P.2.3 Explain that the Newtonian model made it possible to account for such diverse phenomena as tides, the orbits of the planets and moons, the motion of falling objects, and the earth's equatorial bulge.

Class Plan

Day 1 – November 7 – Notes – Gravitation & Other work

Day 2 – November 8 – Notes – Gravitation Interactions & Other work

Day 3 – November 9 – Notes – Gravitation Interactions & Other work

Day 4 – November 10 – Notes – Gravitation & Satellites & Other work

Day 5 – November 11 – Notes – Satellites  & Other work

Day 6 – November 14 – Project Work & Other work

Day 7 – November 15 – Project Work & Other work

Day 8 – November 16* – Early Release Day – Project Work

          *Last Day for C Layer work to be Completed and Checked

Day 9 – November 17 – Project Work

Day 10 – November 18 – Unit Test – Finish Project work – Projects due Nov 21 

C Layer Points Earned (65 points Maximum) _______ 

Project points Earned (35 points Maximum)  ______

                                    Total Points Earned ___________


          40-55 D  56-70 C  71-85 B  86+ A 

C Layer Activities (65 Points Maximum)

1.  Class Notes (5 points per day) _____  _____  _____  _____  _____  Total _____

      OR Video Notes (Gravity 1) (Gravity II)  (Satellite Motion)

2.  Reading Notes Chapter 12 (5 points) (OR CH 12 Questions #1-14)  _____

3.  Reading Notes Chapter 13 (5 points) (OR CH 13 Questions #1-20)  _____

4.  Reading Notes Chapter 14 (5 points) (OR CH 14 Questions #1-14)  _____

5.  Concept Page 12-1 (2 points)       _____

6.  Concept Page 13-1 (5 points)       _____

7.  Concept Page 13-2 (5 points)       _____

8.  Concept Page 13-3 (5 points)       _____

9.  Concept Page 14-1 (5 points)       _____

10.  Lab 38 – Apparent Weightlessness (5 points)     _____

11.  Lab 39 – Getting Eccentric (5 points)      _____

12.  Lab 40 – Trial and Error (Computer Lab) (5 points)    _____

13.  Chapter 12 Questions pp. 180-181 (10 points) # 15-16, 21-27, 29, 35  _____

14.  Chapter 13 Questions pp. 196-198 (10 points)

           #21-22, 25, 28-29,31, 33-34, 38, 40, 41, 43    _____ 

15.  Chapter 14 Questions pp. 210-211 (10 points) #15-16, 18-24, 28  _____

16.  Vocabulary cards (Ch 12, 13 &1 14) – Follow scoring guide (10 points) _____ 

Unit Projects  (Choose one – 35 points maximum)

1.  One day, a colony will be set up on the moon and families will live there for extended periods.  Plans will have to be made for exercise and entertainment while people live on the Moon.  Since sports on Earth satisfy both of these needs – exercise and entertainment – it is reasonable to assume that people on the moon colony will also wish to participate in sports.  It may even be possible that Moon sporting events could be television entertainment for the people back home on Earth.  Your challenge is to identify, adapt, or invent a sport that people on the Moon will find interesting, exciting and entertaining.  Write a proposal to NASA that includes the following:  (a) a description of your sport and its rules and how it meets the basic requirements of a sport; (b) a comparison of factors affecting sports on earth and on the moon in general; (c) a comparison of the play of your sport on the Earth and on the Moon, including any changes to the size of the field, alterations to the equipment, or changes in the rules; (d) a newspaper article for the sports section of your local newspaper back home describing a “championship” match of your Moon sport.  The proposal will be graded on the quality, creativity, and scientific accuracy of your invented sport as well as the description of your sport, the factors affecting sports on the Earth and on the Moon, the comparison of play of your sport on the Earth and on the Moon, and the newspaper article.  NASA proposals that include a mathematical analysis of the sport will be considered superior to those that describe the sport qualitatively.  In your pursuit of finding the “best” sport for the Moon, you may investigate sports that would not be suitable for the Moon.  Descriptions of these rejected sports and the reasons that they were rejected would raise the quality of your proposal. 

2.  Research the historical development of the concept of gravitational force.  Find out how scientists’ ideas about gravity have changed over time.  Identify the contributions of different scientists, such as Galileo, Kepler, Newton and Einstein.  How did each scientist’s work build on the work of earlier scientists?  Analyze, review, and critique the different scientific explanations of gravity.  Focus on each scientist’s hypotheses and theories.  What are their strengths? What are their weaknesses?  What do scientists think about gravity now?  Use scientific evidence and other information to support your answers. Use an A layer research form for your research.  Create a written report over this information using your own words and giving credit to your resources.  (OR Create a poster/display OR Present your findings to the class using visual aids)

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